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Pharmacology

Courtesy of Elizabeth Warren, RVT

AbbreviationDefinition
a.c., APBefore meals
a.d, ADRight ear
a.s. ASLeft ear
a.u. AUBoth ears
amp.Ampule
b.i.d. BIDTwice a day
c. w/With
cap.Capsule
cc, Cubic centimeter
disp.Dispense
g. or gm.Gram
gtt(s)Drop(s)
h., hrHour
h.s.At bedtime
IMIntramuscular
IPIntraperitoneal
IVIntravenous
Lb.Pound
m2Meter squared
mgMilligram
mlMilliliter
n.p.o., NPONothing by mouth
o.d., ODRight eye
o.s., OSLeft eye
o.u., OUBoth eyes
p.c. or p.p.After meals
p.o., POBy mouth
p.r.n., PRNAs needed
q.Every
q.i.d., QIDFour times a day
q.o.d., QODEvery other day
q.s.A sufficient quantity
s.i.d., SIDOnce a day
sig:Directions to patient
StatImmediately
SubQ, SQ, SC, SubcutSubcutaneous
susp.Suspension
t.i.d., TIDThree times a day
TabTablet
Tbsp.Tablespoon (15 ml)
tsp.Teaspoon (5 ml)
Ut. dict.As directed

CONTROLLED DRUGS - Schedules

C-I. Extreme potential for abuse; no approved medicinal purpose in the United States; includes such drugs as heroin, LSD, and marijuana
C-II. High potential for abuse; use may lead to severe physical or psychological dependence; includes drugs such as opium, pentobarbital, and morphine
C-III. Some potential for abuse, but less than for C-II classification; use may lead to low to moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence; includes Ketamine, Pentothal, and telazol
C-IV. Low potential for abuse; use may lead to limited physical and/or psychological dependence; includes drugs such as phenobarbital and diazepam
C-V. Under state and local regulations; low potential for abuse
*Veterinarians may not prescribe Schedule I drugs
** A veterinarian's DEA number must accompany all prescriptions for Scheduled drugs.
***Check with your DEA office for forms required, etc. Form 222 used for Schedule II drug ordering
****Controlled substances must be logged in the controlled substance log (Schedule II, III, IV, and V)

GENERAL GUIDELINES:

  1. Always check the label and NEVER give cloudy solutions intravenously (IV) unless specifically instructed by the veterinarian.
  2. Use of or exposure to more than one organophosphate (antiparasitic) at a time greatly increases the possibility of toxicity. Signs of toxicity include salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, dyspnea, and emesis.
  3. Many antiparasitics are combination formulas with two or more ingredients.
  4. IV infusion reactions are often a result of infusing the drug too rapidly.

ANTIMICROBIALS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
AlbonsulfadimethoxinesulfonamideIV, IM, SC, POSulfas are coccidiostatic.
AmcillampicillinPenicillinIV (slow), IM, PODo not give orally to rabbits
Amiglyde-V amikacinaminoglycosideIVKeep animal well hydrated. Possible nephrotoxic, ototoxic effects
AmoxicillinamoxicillinPenicillinIV, IM, SC, POGive with food if GI upset occurs
AncefcefazolinCephalosporinIV (slow), IM, SCFirst-generation cephalosporin, do not use in patients with allergy to penicillin
Antirobeclindamycinlincosamide/macrolideIM (stings), SC, PODo not administer to rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, and horses
BaytrilenrofloxacinQuinoloneIM, POVeterinary drug. Similar to ciprofloxacin with better bioavailability in animals. Avoid use in renal failure patients, should not be used in growing animals due to risk of damage to cartilage
BiomoxamoxicillinPenicillinIV, IM, SC, POGive with food if GI upset occurs
BiosolneomycinneomycinIV, IM, SC, PO, topicalNot absorbed well systemically Highly nephrotoxic when given parenterally
Cefa-tabs cefadroxilCephalosporinPOFirst-generation cephalosporin, do not use in patients with allergy to penicillin
CiprociprofloxacinQuinoloneIV, IM, SC, PORarely used in vet med. Used in avian med, should not be used in growing animals due to risk of damage to cartilage
Clavamoxamoxicillin with clavulanic acidPenicillinPOAn alternative for bacteria that have developed resistance to amoxicillin
Crystacillinpenicillin GPenicillinIV, IM, SC, PORoute of administration depends on drug form (potassium, procaine, benzathine, etc)
Crystibenpenicillin GPenicillinIV, IM, SC, PORoute of administration depends on drug form (potassium, procaine, benzathine, etc)
Dicural  difloxacinQuinolonePOVeterinary drug. Approved for use in dogs, may cause GI upset in cats, should not be used in growing animals due to risk of damage to cartilage
Di-Trimsulfadiazine & trimethoprim  SulfonamideIV, SC, POCan precipitate in the kidneys of dehydrated animals. Can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS)
Doxy 100doxycyclineTetracyclineIV, POTetracyclines may cause tooth discoloration in prenatal and neonatal animals
Dual-Penpenicillin GPenicillinIV (not recommended) , IM, SC, PORoute of administration depends on drug form (potassium, procaine, benzathine, etc)
DuricolchloramphenicolChloramphenicolIV, IM, SC, POPenetrates CNS. May cause aplastic anemia in humans. Do not give to food animals.
Erythro-100, 200 erythromycinLincosamide/macrolidesIV (slow), IM (stings) POEnters prostate, but not CNS
Flo-cillinpenicillin GPenicillinIV, IM, SC, PORoute of administration depends on drug form (potassium, procaine, benzathine, etc)
GaracingentocingentamicinIV, IM (stings), SC (stings), POKeep animal well hydrated nephrotoxic, ototoxic, neurotoxic effects
GeopencarbenicillinPenicillinIV, IM, PO, intratracheal (birds), aerosolPenicillin of choice for exotics.
Pen Vee Kpenicillin VKPenicillinPOMost widely used penicillin for oral administration
KeflexcephalexinCephalosporinPOFirst-generation cephalospori, do not use in patients with allergy to penicillin
Kefzol cefazolinCephalosporinIV (slow), IM, SCFirst-generation cephalospori, do not use in patients with allergy to penicillin
Lincocin  lincomycinLincosamide/macrolidesIV, IM, POClindamycin is usually chosen over lincomycin because it is more bioavailable and less toxic.
Mefoxin cefoxitinCephalosporinIV, IM, SCSecond-generation cephalosporin. Should not be used in patients with known allergy to penicillin, do not use in patients with allergy to penicillin
Naxcel  ceftiofur CephalosporinIMThird-generation cephalosporin. Do not use if precipitate forms that does not dissipate with warming, do not use in patients with allergy to penicillin
OrbaxorbifloxacinQuinolonePOVeterinary drug, should not be used in growing animals due to risk of damage to cartilage
Oxytet oxytetracyclineTetracyclineIV, IM, POTetracyclines may cause tooth discoloration in prenatal and neonatal animals
PanmycintetracyclineTetracyclineIV (slow), IM, POTetracyclines may cause tooth discoloration in prenatal and neonatal animals
PolyflexampicillinPenicillinIV (slow), IM, PODo not give orally to rabbits
Primaxinimipramine HCL
imipramine pamoate
MiscellaneousIV, IMMay be useful for serious infections when other antibotics have failed. Must be given parenterally. Chloramphenicol may antagonize. Read insert for potential adverse effects and contraindications
Pyopen carbenicillinPenicillinIV, IM, PO, intratracheal (birds), aerosolPenicillin of choice for exotics.
TerramycinoxytetracyclineTetracyclineIV, IM, POTetracyclines may cause tooth discoloration in prenatal and neonatal animals
TicarticarcillinPenicillinIV, IM, SCInjectable penicillin often used in combination with aminoglycosides; they should not be mixed in the same syringe
TicillinticarcillinPenicillinIV, IM, SCInjectable penicillin often used in combination with aminoglycosides; they should not be mixed in the same syringe
Tribrissensulfadiazine/ trimethoprim  SulfonamideIV, SC, POCan precipitate in the kidneys of dehydrated animals. Can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS)
Tylan Soluble PowdertylosinLincosamide/macrolidesIM, PO (in food)Powder form may be used for management of chronic colitis
V-Cillin-Kpenicillin VKPenicillinPOBest penicillin for oral administration
VibramycindoxycyclineTetracyclineIV, POTetracyclines may cause tooth discoloration in prenatal and neonatal animals
Zeniquin marbofloxacinQuinolonePONewest veterinary-approved flouroquinolone, should not be used in growing animals due to risk of damage to cartilage

ANTIPROTOZOAL
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
FlagylmetronidazoleIV, POMay be neurotoxic and immunosuppressive at higher dosages.

ANTIFUNGAL
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
DiflucanfluconazolePOProbably most useful for CNS infections.
Fulvicin U/FgriseofulvinPOKnown teratogen in cats.
Fungizoneamphotericin BIV (rapid or slow bolus)Can cause severe toxicity. Should only be used to treat potentially life-threatening disease (systemic mycoses).
Monistat-miconazoleIV topicalUsed to treat fungal ophthalmic infections
MycostatinnystatinPO, topicalUsed to treat GI and skin candida infections.
NizoralketoconazolePOMuch less toxic than amphotericin B; used for similar systemic fungal infections.
PanalognystatinPO, topicalUsed to treat GI and skin candida infections.
SporanoxitraconazolePOInformation on safety and toxicity limited.

ANTIVIRAL
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
Roferon-Ainterferon- alpha 2APOFor treatment of non-neoplastic FeLV infection in cats.
ZoviraxacyclovirIV, PO, topicalUsed for feline herpes infection and Pacheco's disease in birds.

ANALGESICS AND ANTIINFLAMMATORIES
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
DMSOdimethyl sulfoxideNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)IV, topicalTeratogenic in some species. Wear gloves when applying.
Aspirinacetylsalicylic acidNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)POAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic. Use with caution in cats. Enteric coating can prevent gastric irritation.
Banamineflunixin meglumineNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)IV, IM, POMay cause gastric ulceration, nephrotoxicity; keep patient hydrated
ButatronphenylbutazoneNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)PO Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic.
ButazolidinphenylbutazoneNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)IV, PO *Do not administer injectable preparation IM or SQAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic.
Depo-MedrolmethylprednisoloneGlucocorticoidIM, SC, POIntermediate-acting
DexasonedexamethasoneCorticosteroidIV, IM, SC, POLong-acting
EquipalazonephenylbutazoneNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)POAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic.
EtogesicetodolacNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)POApproved for dogs only
FeldenepiroxicamNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)POUse in cats is as an antineoplastic.
Glucosamine productsglucosamineglycosaminoglycansPOOften combined with chondroitin, these agents are considered nutraceuticals, not drugs.
KetofenketoprofenNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)IV, IM, SC, POApproved for horses only, may inhibit platelet aggregation and cause GI ulceration
LodineetodolacNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)POApproved for dogs only
NaprosynnaproxenNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)POAnalgesic and anti-inflammatory.
RimadylcarprofenNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)IV, IM, SC, POLabrador Retrievers may be more prone to severe side effects.
TylenolacetaminophenNSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)POAnalgesic. Do not use in cats; causes methemoglobinemia and liver damage.

CORTICOSTEROIDS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
AdeauanPSGAG (Polysulfated
Glycosaminoglycan)
glycosaminoglycansIM, IA (intra-articular)Post-injection inflammation possible when administered into the joint.
AziumdexamethasoneSynthetic glucocorticoidIV, IM, SC, POLong-acting
BetasonebetamethasoneSynthetic glucocorticoidIMLong-acting
CortefhydrocortisonehydrocortisoneIV, IM, POShort-acting
DeltasoneprednisoneSynthetic glucocorticoidIV, IM, SC, POIntermediate-acting
Glucosamine productsglucosamineglycosaminolglycansPOOften combined with chondroitin, these agents are considered nutraceuticals, not drugs.
MedrolmethylprednisoloneSynthetic glucocorticoidIM, SC, POIntermediate-acting
MeticortenprednisoneSynthetic glucocorticoidIV, IM, SC, POIntermediate-acting
VetalogtriamcinoloneSynthetic glucocorticoidIM, SC, POIntermediate-acting

INJECTABLE ANESTHETICS AND OTHER CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
Beuthanasia-Dpentobarbital w/ phenytoinspecialIVFor euthanasia only.
Bio-TalthiamylalthiobarbiturateIV onlyReconstitution with LRS can cause precipitation
BuprenexbuprenorphineAnalgesics, partial opiate agonistIV, IM, SCPartial agonist; may cause respiratory depression
-caine productsmepivacaine, procaine, tetracaineProcaine = Class 1A antiarrhythmiclocal or regional areasAvailable in injectable and topical forms Epinephrine is sometimes added to extend the effects
DuragesicfentanylOpiate agonistIV, transdermalPatch gives about 3 days of analgesia. Class II controlled substance.
Innovar-Vetfentanyl/ droperidolOpiate agonistIV (slow), IM/SC (stings)Fentanyl is an opiate. Droperidol is a neuroleptic. Used as an analgesic/tranquilizer in the dog.
KetasetketamineDissociative anestheticIV, IMMost reflexes and muscle tone are maintained. No somatic analgesia.
Morphine productsmorphineOpiate analagesicIV, IM, SC, PO, rectalMay cause panting, then respiratory depression. Class II controlled substance.
Lidocaine HCLlidocaineClass 1A antiarrhythmiclocal infusionThese drugs are used to block nerve
NembutalpentobarbitalBarbituratesIV (slow-to effect)Used for induction of general anesthesia and to manage status epilepticus. Can be used as a single agent for euthanasia. Class II controlled substance.
NumorphanoxymorphoneSemi-synthetic phenanethrene narcotic agonistIV, IM, SCMay cause respiratory and cardiac depression. Class II controlled substance.
PentothalthiopentalThiobarbiturateIV onlyMay adsorb to plastic IV bags and lines.
PropoFlopropofolAlkylphenol derivativeIV onlyRapid induction and recovery. Drug is carried in an egg lecithin base that supports bacterial growth.
RapinovetpropofolAlkylphenol derivativeIV onlyRapid induction and recovery. Drug is carried in an egg lecithin base that supports bacterial growth.
Robaxin-Vmethocarbamolmuscle relaxantIV, POSkeletal muscle relaxant, may cause sedation.
SuritalthiamylalthiobarbiturateIV onlyReconstitution with LRS can cause precipitation
Talwin-VpentazocinePartial agonist/antagonistIV, IM, SCUse in cats is controversial.
Telazoltiletamine/zolazepamTiletamine is a dissociative. Zolazepam is a tranquilizer.IV, IMMost reflexes are retained
TorbugesicbutorphanolopioidIV, IM, SC, POPartial agonist/antagonist; poorly absorbed (narcotic) from GI tract. Also used as an antitussive.
TorbutrolbutorphanolopioidIV, IM, SC, POPartial agonist/antagonist; poorly absorbed (narcotic) from GI tract. Also used as an antitussive.
VetalarketamineDissociative anestheticIV, IMMost reflexes and anesthetics muscle tone are maintained. No somatic analgesia.

TRANQUILIZERS/SEDATIVES
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
Ace Promazine acepromazine Phenothiazine neurolepticIV, IM (stings), SC, PODo not use in conjunction with organophosphates. May cause paradoxical CNS stimulation, hypotension.
Anasedxylazinea-2 adrenergic agonistIV, IM, SCAvailable in 20mg/mL and 100mg/mL; check concentration before administering.Respiratory depression and vomiting are common side effects and can be treated by reversing the drug.
Domitormedetomidinea-2 adrenergic agonistIV, IMUsed for sedation/analgesia in young, healthy animals. Adverse effects such as bradycardia can be treated by reversing the drug with yohimbine or antesedan
PromaceacepromazinePhenothiazine neurolepticIV, IM (stings), SC, PODo not use in conjunction with organophosphates. May cause paradoxical CNS stimulation, hypotension.
Rompunxylazinea-2 adrenergic agonistIV, IM, SCAvailable in 20mg/mL and 100mg/mL; check concentration before administering. Respiratory depression and vomiting are common side effects and can be treated by reversing the drug.
Tranquazineacepromazine Phenothiazine neurolepticIV, IM (stings), SC, PODo not use in conjunction with organophosphates. May cause paradoxical CNS stimulation, hypotension.
ValiumdiazepambenzodiazepineIV, IM, PO, rectalUsed as anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, appetite stimulant, and anticonvulsant
VersedmidazolamimidazobenzodiazepineIV, IMMay be used in place of diazepam.

INHALANT ANESTHETICS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
AerraneisofluraneinhalantRapid induction and recovery; noxious odor.
FluothanehalothaneinhalantCauses increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure; rarely may cause malignant hyperthermia, hepatotoxicity.
ForaneisofluraneinhalantRapid induction and recovery; noxious odor.
HalothaneHalothaneInhalantMay cause hypotension and exacerbate malignant hyperthermia
MetafaneMethoxyfluraneInhalantFading use in vet med. Do not use discolored solution. Use with caution in patients with renal or hepatic disease. Nephrotoxic
SevoFlosevofluraneinhalantVery rapid induction and recovery; no odor.

ANTICONVULSANTS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
-bromidebromides (potassium, sodium)POUsed as an adjunct in management of idiopathic epilepsy.
DiazepamdiazepamIV, rectalUsed to control seizures in progress.
LuminalphenobarbitalIV (slow), IM, POUsual first drug of choice for idiopathic epilepsy. May be used for status seizure.
NembutalpentobarbitalIVUsed in status epilepticus.

CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS INOTROPIC AGENTS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
CardoxindigoxinIV, POToxic and therapeutic doses may overlap. Dobermans tend to be sensitive to digoxin.
DobutrexdobutamineIV infusionUse diluted solutions within 24 hours.
LanoxindigoxinIV, POToxic and therapeutic doses may overlap. Dobermans tend to be sensitive to digoxin.

CATECHOLAMINES
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
Adrenalin
Epinephrine
epinephrineIV, IM, SC
IT (intratracheal) 1:100 (1% or 10mg/mL) topical, inhalation
IC (intracardiac) 1:1000 (.1% or 1mg/mL) IV, IM, SC, IT
inhalation 1:10,000 (.01% or .1mg/mL) IV, IC
Available in several sizes for various uses
IntropindopamineIV (infusion)Effects are dose-dependent
IsuprelisoproterenolIV (infusion), rectal, sublingualDo not use with epinephrine.

ANTICHOLINERGICS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
Atropine SulfateatropineIV, IM, SCUsed for cardiac support, may be used in emergency
Robinul-VglycopyrrolateIV, IM, SCUsed for cardiac support. Not suitable for emergency use.

BETA BLOCKERS
Trade Name (s) Generic nameRoutesNotes
CardizemdiltiazemPOToxicity may be treated with calcium blockers
InderalAtenolol, propranololPO, IV (slow), POSympathomimetic drug effects can be blocked by beta-blocker antiarrhythmics.
IsoptinverapamilIVHigh first-pass effect; watch for toxicity in animals with hepatic disease.
NorvascamlodipinePOUse cautiously in animals with heart failure.
Tenormin Atenolol, propranololPO, IV (slow), POSympathomimetic drug effects can be blocked by beta-blocker antiarrhythmics.

ANGIOTENSIN- CONVERTING- ENZYME (ACE INHIBITORS)
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
CapotencaptoprilPOUse cautiously in animals with renal disease.
EnacardenalaprilIV, POGive on an empty stomach.
VasotecenalaprilIV, POGive on an empty stomach.

VASODILATORS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
ApresolenehydralazineIM, POUse cautiously in patients with severe renal disease.
Nitro-bidnitroglycerintopicalWear gloves when applying ointment.
NitrolnitroglycerintopicalWear gloves when applying ointment.
NitropressnitroprussideIV infusionAdverse effects are due to drug's hypotensive effects.

ANTIARRYTHMIC
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
ProcanprocainamideIV, IM, POUse with caution with other antiarrhythmics.
Pronestyl procainamideIV, IM, POUse with caution with other antiarrhythmics.
QuinidexquinidineIV, IM, POUse with caution with other antiarrhythmics.
XylocainelidocaineIVDo not use lidocaine with epinephrine preparations for IV solutions.

DIURETIC
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
Disal
Diuride
Lasix
furosemideIV, IM, POVeterinary preparations are normally slightly yellow. If human preparations turn yellow, do not use.

RESPIRATORY DRUGS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
Aminophylline productsaminophyllineBronchodilatorIV, IM (painful), PODo not inject air into multi-dose vials; CO2 causes drug to precipitate.
AtaraxhydroxyzineAntihistaminePOAll antihistamines may cause sedation
BenadryldiphenhydramineAntihistamineIV, IM, POIV form used to counteract anaphylactic reactions.
BrethineterbutalineBronchodilatorSC, PO 
Chlorpheniramine productschlorpheniramine maleateAntihistaminePODo not allow time-released capsules to dissolve before oral administration.
Dextromethorphan productsdextromethorphanantitussivePONon-narcotic cough suppressant. Available over-the-counter.
DopramdoxapramStimulantIV, SC 
HycodanhydrocodoneAntitussivePONarcotic cough suppressant.
MucomystacetylcysteinemucolyticIV, PO, inhalationAlso antidote for acetaminophen toxicity.
PeriactincyproheptadineAntihistaminePOAlso used for appetite stimulation in cats.
Propagest, Pro-inphenylpropanolaminedecongestantPOMost common use in veterinary medicine is to treat urinary incontinence.
ProventilalbuterolBronchodilatorPO, inhalationMost adverse effects are dose related and generally transient.
Slo-bidtheophyllineBronchodilatorIV, IM, POAvailable in sustained-release oral dosage form.
TavistclemastineAntihistaminePODo not use the OTC product Tavist-D
Theo-durtheophyllineBronchodilatorIV, IM, POAvailable in sustained-release oral dosage form.
TorbugesicbutorphanolAntitussiveIV, IM, SC, PONarcotic cough suppressant
TorbutrolbutorphanolAntitussiveIV, IM, SC, PONarcotic cough suppressant
TussigonhydrocodoneAntitussivePONarcotic cough suppressant.
VentolinalbuterolBronchodilatorPO, inhalationMost adverse effects are dose related and generally transient.

GASTROINTESTINAL DRUGS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
ActigallursodiolmiscellaneousPOUsed to increase the flow of bile.
Amphogel, Maalox, Basalgel, Tums anti-ulcer antacidsPONeutralize acid. Can affect absorption rates of other oral medications
AntivertmeclizineAntiemeticPOPrimarily used for motion sickness.
ApomorphineApomorphineemeticsIV, IM, SC, topicallyIf vomiting does not occur with initial dose, in conjunctiva subsequent doses are not likely to be effective and may induce toxicity. Wear gloves when handling!
Carafatesucralfateanti-ulcer antacidsPOForms a protective barrier at gastric ulcer site. Give 1/2 hour before other antacids.
Centrineaminopentamideantispasmodics stimulantsIM, SC, POHypomotility drug; if urine retention noted as a side effect, discontinue.
ColacedocusatelaxativesPO, enemaStool softener. Watch hydration status.
Cytotecmisoprostolanti-ulcer antacidsPOMay cause GI side effects such as diarrhea
DSSdocusatelaxatives PO, enemaStool softener. Watch hydration status.
EnuloselactuloselaxativesPOHyperosmotic. Also used to reduce blood ammonia levels in hepatic disease.
Ipecac productssyrup of ipecacemeticsPODo not confuse with extract of ipecac, which is much stronger. Wait for effect of emetics to subside before administering other oral medication such as activated charcoal.
Kaopectatekaolin/pectinantidiarrhealPO 
K-P-Solkaolin/pectinantidiarrhealPO 
Liquicharactivated charcoalmiscellaneousPOAdsorbant used to prevent absorption of toxic elements in the GI tract.
Lomotildiphenoxylate/atropineantidiarrhealPOOpiates reduce gut motility. A small amount of atropine reduces other narcotic effects
Milk of Magnesiamagnesium saltslaxativesPOHyperosmotic; holds water in GI tract and softens stool.
Pepcidfamotidineanti-ulcer antacidsIV, IM, SC, POOral form available OTC.
Pepto-Bismolbismuth subsalicylateantidiarrhealPOMay discolor the stool to black
Periactincyproheptadineappetite stimulantsPOAppetite stimulation in cats; may take 1-2 doses to be effective.
Prilosecomeprazoleanti-ulcer antacidsPOA proton-pump inhibitor, may affect absorption rates of drugs requiring a low stomach pH.
Propulsidcisaprideantispasmodic stimulantsPOHas been removed from US market. Used in management of feline chronic constipation
ReglanmetoclopramideAntiemetic, light sedativeIV (slow), IM, SC, POPromotility agent. Inhibits gastroesophageal reflux. Do not use if GI obstruction is suspected
Tagametcimetidineanti-ulcer antacidsIV, IM (stings), SC, PODo not refrigerate injectable form. Oral form available OTC
ThorazinechlorpromazineAntiemeticIV, IM, PO, rectalProtect from light. May discolor urine to a pink or red-brown.
Toxibanactivated charcoalmiscellaneousPOAdsorbant used to prevent absorption of toxic elements in the GI tract.
ValiumdiazepamAppetite stimulantsIVAppetite stimulation in cats; effective immediately after injection. Dose is a fraction of that used for sedation.
Zantacranitidineanti-ulcer antacidsIV (slow), IM (stings), SC, POReduces gastric acid output.
ZofranondansetronantiemeticIV, POIndicated for refractory vomiting, chemotherapy sickness, and other hard-to-treat nausea.

ANTIPARASITICS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
AdvantageimidaclopridtopicalAdult fleas. May be used weekly for severe infestations.
Capstarnitenpyram POAdult fleas. Kills 98% of adult fleas on pet within 6 hours of administration and for about 24 hours.
CestexepsiprantelPOTapeworms
DroncitpraziquantelIM/SC (stings), POTapeworms
Drontal PlusPraziquantel andIM/SC (stings), POTapeworms
FlagylMetronidazoleIV, POAntiprotozoal
FrontlinefiproniltopicalAdult fleas and ticks. Transient irritation may occur at site of spot-on administration.
Heartgard PlusIvermectin andIM, SC, POEffective against most internal parasites except cestodes. Collies and similar breeds may be sensitive to ivermectin. Use with liver flukes. Used as a heartworm preventative, use caution and observe for adverse preventative and microfilaride reactions
ImmiticideMelarsomineIM only (stings)Heartworm adulticide. Swelling at injection site common. Post-treatment thromboembolism is possible with adulticide therapy minimize activity after treatment to reduce this risk.
Interceptor, Milbemycin oximePOHeartworm preventative effective against hooks, rounds, dogs with microfilaria, also may cause shock-like reaction in large numbers of microfilaria and whipworms.
Iverheart PlusivermectinIM, SC, POEffective against most internal parasites except cestodes. Collies and similar breeds may be sensitive to ivermectin. Use with liver flukes. Used as a heartworm preventative: use caution and observe for adverse preventative and microfilaride reactions
IvomecivermectinIM, SC, POEffective against most internal parasites except cestodes. Collies and similar breeds may be sensitive to ivermectin. Use with liver flukes. Used as a heartworm preventative: use caution and observe for adverse preventative and microfilaride reactions
Many insect sprayspyrethrinstopicalNeurotoxicant insecticide.
MitabanamitraztopicalUsed against Demodex mites. Avoid contact with skin. Avoid breathing fumes. Can be toxic to cats, rabbits.
NemexpyrantelPORoundworms, hookworms
OTC flea/tick spot-onsPermethrin many (home and yard, PO, topical organophosphates area, and pet products)Many internal and external parasites.
Many permethrin toxicity cases in cats are due to inappropriate application.
Panacur,
Telmin
Benzimidazole (mebendazole, Valbazen fenbendazole, albendazole, etc)PORounds, hookworms, tapes, (except D. caninum), some lungworms, large and small strongyles
Pipa-tabs (OTC)piperazinePORoundworms. Piperazine antagonizes the effects of Heartgard Plus, Iverheart Plus and pyrantel.
ProgramlufeneronSC, POInterrupts flea life cycle, inhibits chitin production. Does not kill adult fleas
Proheart 6moxidectinSCHeartworm preventative
RevolutionselamectintopicalDogs: Adult and developing avermectin-sensitive fleas, heartworms, ear mites, sarcoptic mange. Safe for collies. Cats: also controls hookworm and roundworms.
SentinelMilbemycin oxime & lufeneronPOHeartworm preventative effective against hooks, rounds, dogs with microfilaria, also may cause shock-like reaction if large numbers of whipworms. Interrupts flea life cycle, inhibits chitin production. Does not kill adult fleas
StrongidpyrantelPORoundworms, hookworms

HORMONES AND OTHER ENDOCRINE DRUGS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
Aniprylselegilinesteroid inhibitorsPOFor treatment of hyperadrenocorticism. Also used in the treatment of canine cognitive dysfunction.
Cheque DropsmiboleroneandrogensPOPrevention of estrus in adult dogs. Not recommended for cats.
CortrosyncorticotropinsteroidsIV, IMUsed in the ACTH stimulation test.
Cytobinliothyroninedrugs affecting supplement thyroid hormonePOT3 hormone supplement; may be useful in hypothyroid cases that do not respond to T4.
DanocrinetestosteroneandrogensIM, SCTestosterone products are now C-III controlled substances with limited use in vet medicine
DDAVPdesmopressinpituitarySC, intranasalAn antidiuretic hormone used in control of hormones diabetes insipidus.
Depo-Proveramedroxyprogesteroneprogestin- IM, SC, POUsed in treatment of some behavioral and dermatologic conditions.
DESdiethylstilbestrolestrogenPOUsed to treat estrogen-responsive urinary incontinence and other conditions in dogs and cats. Toxic to bone marrow. Contraindicated in pregnancy.
DinoprostprostaglandinandrogensSCCauses uterine contents to be expelled. Pregnant women and asthmatics should handle only with extreme caution.
Eldepryl(l-deprenyl)steroid inhibitorsPOAlso used in the treatment of canine cognitive dysfunction.
EquimatefluprostenolandrogensSCFor large animal use
Estradiol ECPestrogenEstrogenIMUsed to prevent pregnancy after mismating in dogs and cats. Toxic to bone marrow. Contraindicated in pregnancy.
EstrumatecloprostenolandrogensSCFor large animal use
FlorineffludrocortisonesteroidsPOFor treatment of hypoadrenocorticism.
GlucotrolglipizideantidiabeticPOOral hypoglycemic agent.
Insulin productsinsulinantidiabeticSCStore in refrigerator. Mix gently—do not shake—before using. Clients should be given thorough instructions on the use of insulin at home.
LutalyseprostaglandinandrogensSCCauses uterine contents to be expelled. Pregnant women and asthmatics should handle only with extreme caution.
Lysodrenmitotanesteroid inhibitorsPOFor treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism
MegacemegestrolprogestinPOFor false pregnancy, control of estrus cycle. Contraindicated in pregnancy. Can induce hypoadrenocorticism in cats.
OvabanmegestrolprogestinPOFor false pregnancy, control of estrus cycle. Contraindicated in pregnancy. Can induce hypoadrenocorticism in cats.
Percorten-VdesoxycorticosteronesteroidsIMFor treatment of hypoadrenocorticism. (DOCP)
PitocinoxytocinpituitaryIV, IM, SCInduction/enhancement of uterine contractions at parturition.
Soloxine levothyroxine Supplement thyroid hormonePOT4 Thyroid hormone
TapazolemethimazoleThioimidazole-derivative anti-thyroidPOUsed in the medical management of hyperthyroidism
Thyrozinelevothyroxine drugs affecting supplement
thyroid hormone
POT4 Thyroid hormone

CHEMOTHERAPEUTICS AND IMMUNOLOGICS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameClassRoutesNotes
5-fluorouracil5-fluorouracilantimetabolitesIVBone marrow (BM) suppression, central nervous system. Do not use in cats.
AcemannanAcemannanimmunostimulantIP, intralesionalBenefit controversial
AdriamycindoxorubicinAntibioticsIVBM, GI, cardiac, urticaria, alopecia, vesicant.
Corticosteroids Under steroids listing     
Cytosar-UcytarbarineantimetabolitesIV, SCBM, GI
Cytoxancyclophosphamidealkylating agentsIV, POBM, GI, hemorrhagic cystitis.
CytoxancyclophosphamideimmunosuppressantsIV, POBM, GI, hemorrhagic cystitis.
ElsparasparaginasemiscellaneousIV, SCanaphylaxis, coagulation disorder
FeldenepiroxicamchemotherapeuticsPOGI ulceration
HydreahydroxyureachemotherapeuticsPOBM, GI, alopecia, dysuria
Immunoregulinpropionibacterium acnesimmunostimulantIVlethargy, fever, chills canine lymphoma
ImuranazathioprineimmunosuppressantsPOBM, immunosuppression
Leukeranchlorambucilalkylating agentsPOBM
MethotrexatemethotrexateantimetabolitesIV, POBM, GI, renal
Metronidazole Under antibiotics     
OncovinvincristinemitoticIVGI, peripheral nervous system. Skin contact causes irritation
Paraplatincarboplatinalkylating agentsIVBone marrow, gastrointestinal
Platinolcisplatinalkylating agentsIVBM, GI. Do not use in cats.
SandimmunecyclosporineimmunosuppressantstopicalNo significant systemic side effects.
Staphage Lysatestaphylococcusimmunostimulantphage lysatelethargy, fever, chills, injection site irritation
Velbanvinblastinevesicant. inhibitorsIVBM, GI, alopecia. Vesicant. Skin contact causes irritation.

ANTIDOTES AND REVERSALS
Trade Name(s)Generic nameRoutesNotes
Methylene bluemethylene bluePO?acetaminophen toxicity
AntisedanatipamezoleIVreversal of medetomidine (Domitor)
Antizol-Vetfomepizole (4-MP)IVethylene glycol toxicity
BAL in oildimercaprolIVarsenic, lead, mercury, gold toxicity
Calcium Disodium Versenatecalcium EDTAIVlead poisoning
Cupriminepenicillamine lead, copper toxicity
manyAtropineIV, SQorganophosphate toxicity
manyethanolIVethylene glycol toxicity
MucomystacetylcysteineNasalacetaminophen toxicity
NarcannaloxoneIVopioid agonist reversal
Protopampralidoxime (2-PAM)IVorganophosphate toxicity
Romaziconflumazenil IVreversal of benzodiazepines (Valium)
StiglynNeostigmine, (pancuronium, succinylcholine)IVneuromuscular-blocking agent toxicity
YobineyohimbineIVreversal of xylazine (Rompun) and if ingestion of Amitraz collar

Courtesy of Elizabeth Warren, RVT

The Nerd Book
The VSPN Nerdbook was created by veterinary technicians and veterinary support staff for their colleagues. The Nerdbook provides information that veterinary technicians and support staff need in practice, but is not meant to contain everything. Procedures and policies vary among practices, so feel free to modify your Nerdbook fit your facility.
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